Employment & Incomes

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Employment & Incomes

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Employment & Incomes.jpgTHE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES PICTURE...................................................... 201

South African employment and incomes at a glance....................... 201

THE OVERALL PICTURE................................................................................................ 202

Labour market trends.................................................................................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2001 and 2009 ............................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2008–09........................................................... 203

Labour market participation and absorption rates................................................ 204

Labour market participation rate, 2001–09....................................... 204

Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2009................. 204

Labour force participation rate, selected countries,
1990 and 2007..................................................................................... 205

Labour force absorption rate, 2001–09.............................................. 206

Economically active population.................................................................................. 206

Definition................................................................................................... 206

Economically active population by race, 2001–09.......................... 207

Economically active population by race, 2001–09
(wider definition of unemployment)................................................ 207

Economically active population by race and sex, 2009.................. 208

EMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................................... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001, 2008, 2009..... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry,
2001, 2008, 2009................................................................................ 209

Change in overall employment by economic sector and
industry, 2001–09............................................................................... 210

Employment by industry, sex, and race................................................................. 211

Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2009........................... 211

Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2008–09............................ 212

Employment by occupation, 2009....................................................... 217

Employment by occupation and type, 2009...................................... 217

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009
(actual numbers).................................................................................. 218

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009 (proportions)..... 219

Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and
sex, 2007 (proportions)....................................................................... 220

Employment in the public sector............................................................................. 221

Total number of state employees, 1999–2008.................................. 221

Breakdown by department.................................................................... 221

Breakdown by race and sex.................................................................. 222

Characteristics of the employed.............................................................................. 222

Employment by age group, 2009......................................................... 222

Employment by highest level of education, 2009............................. 222

Informal employment............................................................................................... 223

Informal employment by industry, 2008–09..................................... 223

Informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............................... 224

Change in informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............ 224

Segments of the working population....................................................................... 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector................................................ 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector
employment, 2007–09....................................................................... 225

Formal sector (non-agricultural) by industry, 2004–09.................... 225

Agriculture.............................................................................................................. 226

Employment in agriculture by type of employment, 2001–09....... 226

Number of paid workers in the formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 226

Informal sector..................................................................................................... 227

Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry,
2004–09................................................................................................ 227

Change in informal sector employment (non-agricultural)
by industry, 2004–09.......................................................................... 227

Productivity.................................................................................................................. 228

Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker,
and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-
domestic sector, 1994–2008............................................................. 228

UNEMPLOYMENT.............................................................................................................. 229

Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2009.................................. 229

Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2009............... 231

Number of unemployed (wide definition), 1994–2009.................... 231

Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2009........................................... 232

Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2009...................... 233

Unemployment rate (wide definition), 1994–2009........................... 233

Unemployment by occupation and industry, 2008–09................... 234

Characteristics of the unemployed.......................................................................... 235

Characteristics of the unemployed, 2008–09.................................... 235

Unemployment by age group, 2008–09.............................................. 236

Unemployment rate by age group, 2008–09...................................... 236

Unemployed by highest level of education, 2008–09...................... 236

Unemployment by length of time, 2008–09...................................... 237

Unemployment by current marital status, 2008–09......................... 237

Unemployment levels, selected countries............................................................... 238

Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2009.................................. 238

UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR...................... 239

Not economically active............................................................................................ 239

Persons not economically active, 2008–09........................................ 239

Underutilisation........................................................................................................... 240

Underutilisation of labour, 2008–09.................................................... 240

Underemployment...................................................................................................... 241

Time-related underemployment by industry, 2008–09.................... 241

Time-related underemployment by occupation, 2008–09.............. 242

Discouraged workseekers.......................................................................................... 243

Total number of discouraged workseekers, 1994–2007
(old definition)...................................................................................... 243

Defining the discouraged (new definition)........................................... 244

Total number of discouraged workseekers by race,
2001–09 (new definition)................................................................... 245

Discouraged workseekers, 2008–09 (new definition)........................ 245

Non-market activities................................................................................................. 246

Non-market activities, 2008–09........................................................... 246

PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA.................................................................... 246

Overall data................................................................................................................. 246

Economically active population by province, 2009......................... 246

Trends 2008–09.......................................................................................................... 247

Labour market trends by province, 2008–09..................................... 247

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 249

Employment by industry and province, 2008–09............................. 249

Agriculture.................................................................................................................... 253

Number of paid workers in formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 253

Unemployment........................................................................................................... 253

Unemployment numbers by province, 2004, 2008, 2009............... 253

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009........................ 254

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009
(official definition).............................................................................. 254

MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA....................................................................... 255

Labour market status................................................................................................. 255

Labour market status by race............................................................... 255

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 261

Employment by industry........................................................................ 261

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE........................................................................................ 267

Wage trends...................................................................................................................... 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (current prices)................................................. 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (constant prices).............................................. 267

Incomes.............................................................................................................................. 268

Income levels and categories.................................................................................... 268

Number of households by income category and province, 2008... 268

Proportion of households by income category and province,
2008....................................................................................................... 269

Average household income by province............................................. 270

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (numbers).................. 271

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (proportions)............. 272

Personal monthly income, 2007 (proportions)................................... 272

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (numbers)................. 273

Adults by race and income group, 2008 (numbers).......................... 273

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (proportions)............ 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (numbers).................. 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (proportions)............. 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 276

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 276

Remuneration of public servants: the executive, the National
Assembly, and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP)......... 277

Remuneration of public servants: provinces...................................... 278

Remuneration of public servants: local government........................ 278

Remuneration: traditional leaders........................................................ 279

Remuneration: the Judiciary................................................................. 279

Income sources........................................................................................................... 280

Number of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race
(African and other), 2007................................................................. 281

Income inequality....................................................................................................... 282

Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2008.................................................. 282

Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2008..................................... 282

INCOME TRENDS................................................................................................................ 283

Long-term income trends.................................................................................... 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race,
1960 and 2007..................................................................................... 283

Personal disposable income share by race, 1960 and 2007............ 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960–2007.... 284

Personal disposable income by race, 1960 and 2007....................... 285

Medium-term income trends.............................................................................. 285

Personal annual income per head by province, 1996–2008........... 285

Household annual average income by province, 1996–2008........ 286

Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2008...................... 287

Annual total disposable income by race, 1998 and 2008................ 288

Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2008................................. 289

Annual per capita income by race, 1998 and 2008.......................... 289

Annual average household income by race, 1996–2008................. 290

Annual average household income by race, 1998 and 2008.......... 290

Average per capita income by race...................................................... 291

Expenditure....................................................................................................................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race, 2006–07....................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race and sex, 2007............... 292

Household expenditure categories by sex, 2007................................ 292

Consumption..................................................................................................................... 293

Total and average household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, 2005/06.............................................. 293

Average annual household consumption expenditure
by province........................................................................................... 294

Distribution of household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, excluding imputed rent,
mortgage, and other unclassified expenses.................................... 295

Household consumption, 2005/06....................................................... 295

Private consumption expenditure by households, 1965–2008....... 296

Credit.................................................................................................................................. 297

Levels of indebtedness by province, 2008.......................................... 297

Sources of credit....................................................................................... 297

Living Standards Measures.......................................................................................... 298

Living standards measures by age, race, income, and
province, 2008..................................................................................... 299

LSMs, change over time, 2001–08....................................................... 301

POVERTY............................................................................................................................... 302

Poverty trends.............................................................................................................. 302

Number and proportion of people living on less than $1/day,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 302

Number of people living on less than US$1 a day, 1996–2008...... 302

Number of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty, 1998 and 2008...... 304

The poverty gap.......................................................................................................... 304

The poverty gap by race, 1996–2008 (in millions of rands)............ 304

The poverty gap by race, 1998 and 2008........................................... 305

Provincial poverty....................................................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (actual numbers)....................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (proportions)............................................................................... 306

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 306

Number of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 307

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 308

Municipal poverty...................................................................................................... 309

Poverty rate by district municipality.................................................... 309

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Employment & Incomes.jpgTHE EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES PICTURE...................................................... 201

South African employment and incomes at a glance....................... 201

THE OVERALL PICTURE................................................................................................ 202

Labour market trends.................................................................................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2001 and 2009 ............................................... 202

Labour market trends, 2008–09........................................................... 203

Labour market participation and absorption rates................................................ 204

Labour market participation rate, 2001–09....................................... 204

Labour market participation rate by race and sex, 2009................. 204

Labour force participation rate, selected countries,
1990 and 2007..................................................................................... 205

Labour force absorption rate, 2001–09.............................................. 206

Economically active population.................................................................................. 206

Definition................................................................................................... 206

Economically active population by race, 2001–09.......................... 207

Economically active population by race, 2001–09
(wider definition of unemployment)................................................ 207

Economically active population by race and sex, 2009.................. 208

EMPLOYMENT.................................................................................................................... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry, 2001, 2008, 2009..... 209

Overall employment by economic sector and industry,
2001, 2008, 2009................................................................................ 209

Change in overall employment by economic sector and
industry, 2001–09............................................................................... 210

Employment by industry, sex, and race................................................................. 211

Employment by industry and sex, 2001 and 2009........................... 211

Employment by industry, sex, and race, 2008–09............................ 212

Employment by occupation, 2009....................................................... 217

Employment by occupation and type, 2009...................................... 217

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009
(actual numbers).................................................................................. 218

Employment by occupation, race, and sex, 2009 (proportions)..... 219

Employment equity employment by occupation, race, and
sex, 2007 (proportions)....................................................................... 220

Employment in the public sector............................................................................. 221

Total number of state employees, 1999–2008.................................. 221

Breakdown by department.................................................................... 221

Breakdown by race and sex.................................................................. 222

Characteristics of the employed.............................................................................. 222

Employment by age group, 2009......................................................... 222

Employment by highest level of education, 2009............................. 222

Informal employment............................................................................................... 223

Informal employment by industry, 2008–09..................................... 223

Informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............................... 224

Change in informal employment by occupation, 2008–09............ 224

Segments of the working population....................................................................... 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic formal sector................................................ 225

Non-agricultural, non-domestic, formal private and public sector
employment, 2007–09....................................................................... 225

Formal sector (non-agricultural) by industry, 2004–09.................... 225

Agriculture.............................................................................................................. 226

Employment in agriculture by type of employment, 2001–09....... 226

Number of paid workers in the formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 226

Informal sector..................................................................................................... 227

Informal sector employment (non-agricultural) by industry,
2004–09................................................................................................ 227

Change in informal sector employment (non-agricultural)
by industry, 2004–09.......................................................................... 227

Productivity.................................................................................................................. 228

Change in total employment, real remuneration per worker,
and labour productivity in the non-agricultural, non-
domestic sector, 1994–2008............................................................. 228

UNEMPLOYMENT.............................................................................................................. 229

Unemployment numbers by race, 1994–2009.................................. 229

Number of unemployed (official definition), 1994–2009............... 231

Number of unemployed (wide definition), 1994–2009.................... 231

Unemployment rate by race, 1994–2009........................................... 232

Unemployment rate (official definition), 1994–2009...................... 233

Unemployment rate (wide definition), 1994–2009........................... 233

Unemployment by occupation and industry, 2008–09................... 234

Characteristics of the unemployed.......................................................................... 235

Characteristics of the unemployed, 2008–09.................................... 235

Unemployment by age group, 2008–09.............................................. 236

Unemployment rate by age group, 2008–09...................................... 236

Unemployed by highest level of education, 2008–09...................... 236

Unemployment by length of time, 2008–09...................................... 237

Unemployment by current marital status, 2008–09......................... 237

Unemployment levels, selected countries............................................................... 238

Unemployment rates, selected countries, 2009.................................. 238

UNDERUTILISATION AND NON-PARTICIPATION OF LABOUR...................... 239

Not economically active............................................................................................ 239

Persons not economically active, 2008–09........................................ 239

Underutilisation........................................................................................................... 240

Underutilisation of labour, 2008–09.................................................... 240

Underemployment...................................................................................................... 241

Time-related underemployment by industry, 2008–09.................... 241

Time-related underemployment by occupation, 2008–09.............. 242

Discouraged workseekers.......................................................................................... 243

Total number of discouraged workseekers, 1994–2007
(old definition)...................................................................................... 243

Defining the discouraged (new definition)........................................... 244

Total number of discouraged workseekers by race,
2001–09 (new definition)................................................................... 245

Discouraged workseekers, 2008–09 (new definition)........................ 245

Non-market activities................................................................................................. 246

Non-market activities, 2008–09........................................................... 246

PROVINCIAL LABOUR MARKET DATA.................................................................... 246

Overall data................................................................................................................. 246

Economically active population by province, 2009......................... 246

Trends 2008–09.......................................................................................................... 247

Labour market trends by province, 2008–09..................................... 247

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 249

Employment by industry and province, 2008–09............................. 249

Agriculture.................................................................................................................... 253

Number of paid workers in formal agricultural sector
per province, 2007............................................................................... 253

Unemployment........................................................................................................... 253

Unemployment numbers by province, 2004, 2008, 2009............... 253

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009........................ 254

Unemployment rate by province, 2004, 2008, 2009
(official definition).............................................................................. 254

MUNICIPAL LABOUR MARKET DATA....................................................................... 255

Labour market status................................................................................................. 255

Labour market status by race............................................................... 255

Employment by industry........................................................................................... 261

Employment by industry........................................................................ 261

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE........................................................................................ 267

Wage trends...................................................................................................................... 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (current prices)................................................. 267

Trends in average monthly earnings in formal non-agricultural
industries, 2007–08 (constant prices).............................................. 267

Incomes.............................................................................................................................. 268

Income levels and categories.................................................................................... 268

Number of households by income category and province, 2008... 268

Proportion of households by income category and province,
2008....................................................................................................... 269

Average household income by province............................................. 270

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (numbers).................. 271

Personal monthly income by province, 2007 (proportions)............. 272

Personal monthly income, 2007 (proportions)................................... 272

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (numbers)................. 273

Adults by race and income group, 2008 (numbers).......................... 273

Adults by race, income group, and sex, 2008 (proportions)............ 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (numbers).................. 274

Adults by income group and province, 2008 (proportions)............. 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 275

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 276

Adults by income group and highest level of education,
2007 (proportions)............................................................................... 276

Remuneration of public servants: the executive, the National
Assembly, and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP)......... 277

Remuneration of public servants: provinces...................................... 278

Remuneration of public servants: local government........................ 278

Remuneration: traditional leaders........................................................ 279

Remuneration: the Judiciary................................................................. 279

Income sources........................................................................................................... 280

Number of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race,
2006–07................................................................................................ 280

Proportion of households by main source of income by race
(African and other), 2007................................................................. 281

Income inequality....................................................................................................... 282

Gini co-efficient by race, 1996–2008.................................................. 282

Gini co-efficient by province and race, 2008..................................... 282

INCOME TRENDS................................................................................................................ 283

Long-term income trends.................................................................................... 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race,
1960 and 2007..................................................................................... 283

Personal disposable income share by race, 1960 and 2007............ 283

Real personal disposable income per head by race, 1960–2007.... 284

Personal disposable income by race, 1960 and 2007....................... 285

Medium-term income trends.............................................................................. 285

Personal annual income per head by province, 1996–2008........... 285

Household annual average income by province, 1996–2008........ 286

Annual total disposable income by race, 1996–2008...................... 287

Annual total disposable income by race, 1998 and 2008................ 288

Annual per capita income by race, 1996–2008................................. 289

Annual per capita income by race, 1998 and 2008.......................... 289

Annual average household income by race, 1996–2008................. 290

Annual average household income by race, 1998 and 2008.......... 290

Average per capita income by race...................................................... 291

Expenditure....................................................................................................................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race, 2006–07....................... 291

Household expenditure categories by race and sex, 2007............... 292

Household expenditure categories by sex, 2007................................ 292

Consumption..................................................................................................................... 293

Total and average household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, 2005/06.............................................. 293

Average annual household consumption expenditure
by province........................................................................................... 294

Distribution of household consumption expenditure
by main expenditure group, excluding imputed rent,
mortgage, and other unclassified expenses.................................... 295

Household consumption, 2005/06....................................................... 295

Private consumption expenditure by households, 1965–2008....... 296

Credit.................................................................................................................................. 297

Levels of indebtedness by province, 2008.......................................... 297

Sources of credit....................................................................................... 297

Living Standards Measures.......................................................................................... 298

Living standards measures by age, race, income, and
province, 2008..................................................................................... 299

LSMs, change over time, 2001–08....................................................... 301

POVERTY............................................................................................................................... 302

Poverty trends.............................................................................................................. 302

Number and proportion of people living on less than $1/day,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 302

Number of people living on less than US$1 a day, 1996–2008...... 302

Number of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty by race,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 303

Proportion of people living in relative poverty, 1998 and 2008...... 304

The poverty gap.......................................................................................................... 304

The poverty gap by race, 1996–2008 (in millions of rands)............ 304

The poverty gap by race, 1998 and 2008........................................... 305

Provincial poverty....................................................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (actual numbers)....................................................................... 305

Poverty levels: people living in poverty by province and race,
2008 (proportions)............................................................................... 306

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 306

Number of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 307

Proportion of people living on less than $1 per day by province,
1996–2008........................................................................................... 308

Municipal poverty...................................................................................................... 309

Poverty rate by district municipality.................................................... 309

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