Education

The detailed contents of the education chapter follow below. The page numbers refer to the hard copy report.
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Education

The detailed contents of the education chapter follow below. The page numbers refer to the hard copy report.

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Education.jpgTHE EDUCATION PICTURE............................................................................................ 375

Education at a glance............................................................................. 375

FINANCE................................................................................................................................. 376

Education spending.................................................................................................... 376

Consolidated education spending, 2008/09 and 2009/10............... 376

Spending per pupil in South Africa, 2008/09...................................... 377

Increase/decrease in spending per pupil, 2000/01–2008/09........... 377

Higher education spending................................................................................. 377

State spending on higher education, 1999 and 2009........................ 377

State budget allocation according to institution and
 spending per university student, 2007............................................. 378

International comparisons.................................................................................. 379

Public expenditure on education as a proportion of total
 government expenditure, and of GDP, selected
 countries, 2007..................................................................................... 379

QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION.............................................. 380

National Qualifications Framework (NQF).............................................................. 380

Levels of education in South Africa..................................................... 380

Level of education........................................................................................................... 381

National statistics........................................................................................................ 381

Adults without education by race...................................................................... 381

Persons aged 20 years and older, with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 381

Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 381

Adults who have completed grade 8 by race.................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (numbers)................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (proportions)............................................ 382

Adults who have completed grade 12 by race................................................ 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers).................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................. 383

Adults who have completed higher education by race.................................. 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers)............................... 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions).......................... 383

Provincial and local statistics.................................................................................... 384

Persons aged 20 and older, by municipality or district and
 province by race, by highest level of education (proportions).... 384

Literacy.............................................................................................................................. 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write....................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (proportions)........................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, 2002–2007
  (proportions) ....................................................................................... 390

International comparisons.................................................................................. 391

Human development index and adult literacy, selected
 countries, 2006..................................................................................... 391

Youth literacy rate, selected countries, 2005–2007.......................... 392

EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE..................................................................................... 393

Proportion of population aged between 7 and 15
 attending an educational institution, 2007..................................... 393

Population attending educational institutions, by type
 of institution, 2007.............................................................................. 393

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and province, 2007..................................................... 394

Population attending an educational institution, by
 province, 2007 (proportions)............................................................. 395

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and race, 2007............................................................. 396

Provincial distribution of learners by poverty quintile, 2008........... 396

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLING............................................................... 397

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 397

Attendance at early childhood development centres, children aged 5-6.. 397

Attendance at early childhood education sites by province,
 and race, 2000..................................................................................... 397

School enrolment levels....................................................................................... 397

School enrolment, 2007.......................................................................... 397

Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent
 schools, 1999 and 2008 .................................................................... 398

Pupils at independent and public schools by province,
 2000 to 2008........................................................................................ 399

Resources........................................................................................................................... 401

Public schools.............................................................................................................. 401

Number of public schools................................................................................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999, 2003, and 2008........................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999 and 2008....................................... 402

Pupils and teachers 402

Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2008................. 402

Numbers of pupils and teachers at public schools,
 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008...................................... 403

Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000......................... 403

School Governing Bodies (SGBs)...................................................................... 404

Teacher qualifications......................................................................................... 405

The qualification profile of teachers in public schools, 2005.......... 405

Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs)............................ 405

Number of teachers employed by school governing bodies,
 1997, 2004, 2007, and 2008............................................................. 405

Teacher vacancies................................................................................................ 406

Vacancies by province, 2006–2008..................................................... 406

Temporary teachers............................................................................................. 407

Temporary teachers employed, by province, by years of service,
 July 2008............................................................................................... 407

Facilities and amenities....................................................................................... 407

Public schools and toilets, 2006............................................................ 407

Public schools and source of water supply, 2006.............................. 409

Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2006.................................... 410

Public schools and source of electricity supply, 2006....................... 411

Public schools and computer facilities, 2006...................................... 412

Public schools and communication systems, 2006........................... 413

Public schools and library facilities, 2006........................................... 414

Safety in schools................................................................................................... 415

Public schools and safety, 2006............................................................ 415

High student safety in school, grade 4, 2006...................................... 416

No-fee schools....................................................................................................... 417

Number and proportion of no-fee schools, and of pupils
 attending no-fee schools, 2008......................................................... 417

Independent schools.................................................................................................. 417

Independent schools by province, 1999, 2003, 2008....................... 417

Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province, 2008...... 418

School examinations and output.................................................................................. 419

Public examinations................................................................................................... 419

Definitions.............................................................................................................. 419

National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric.......... 419

Overall results........................................................................................................ 420

Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007:
 old curriculum...................................................................................... 420

Senior certificate examination results: 2008 — new
 curriculum............................................................................................. 421

Results by province.............................................................................................. 422

Senior certificate examination results by province, 1994, 1998,
 2003,2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007: old curriculum...................... 422

Matric pass rate by race and province, 2007..................................... 424

Subject results....................................................................................................... 426

Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,
 1999–2007: old curriculum............................................................... 426

Subject results: new curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2008........... 428

Senior certificate results: 2008 — technical subjects........................ 438

Language senior certificate examination results: 2008.................... 438

Municipal and provincial results........................................................................ 439

Matric results by municipality and province, 2008........................... 439

Throughput 2006–2008...................................................................................... 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (numbers)................................................. 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (proportions)............................................ 447

The grade 10 class of 2006.................................................................... 447

Independent examinations board........................................................................... 448

Examination results............................................................................................. 448

Independent Examinations Board senior certificate
 examination results, 1994–2008...................................................... 448

International schooling comparisons......................................................................... 449

Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006................................................... 449

The school system, 2008........................................................................ 450

School enrolment rates, selected countries, 2007.............................. 451

OTHER EDUCATION.......................................................................................................... 452

Further education and training (FET)....................................................................... 452

Further education and training colleges............................................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 2,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 3,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges by province, 2009............. 453

Nursing colleges, 2006.................................................................................................... 453

Nursing colleges, 2006............................................................................. 453

PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION...................................................................................... 454

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 454

Tertiary enrolment................................................................................................ 454

University and university of technology enrolment, 1985–2007... 454

Tertiary enrolment by race................................................................................. 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (actual numbers), 1995–2007....................... 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (proportions), 1995–2007............................... 456

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race, 1995 and 2007 (proportions)........................ 456

University head-count, by race, 1999-2007 (numbers).................... 457

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (numbers)............ 457

University head-count, by race, 1999–2007 (proportions).............. 458

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (proportions)....... 458

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 459

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 459

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 460

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 460

Output................................................................................................................................. 461

Tertiary awards, 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................... 461

Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities
 and universities of technology by field of study,
 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................................ 461

University and university of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (numbers): bachelor degrees and higher ............... 462

Universities and universities of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (proportions): bachelor degrees and higher........... 463

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 464

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 466

Output of universities and universities of technology 2007............. 468

Throughput....................................................................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, 2002........................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, first-year-class of 2002.............................. 469

Input.................................................................................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, academic literacy..................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, quantitative literacy................ 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, mathematics............................. 470

World-wide university rankings, 2008....................................................................... 471

The world’s top universities, 2008........................................................ 471

Top 100 universities in Africa, 2009.................................................... 472

PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION................................................................................... 473

Private higher education institutions................................................................. 473

Private Higher Education, 2009, officially registered private
 higher education institutions (includes provisionally
 registered institutions) ........................................................................ 473

WORK AND EDUCATION................................................................................................. 474

Education and employment.......................................................................................... 474

Education and employment............................................................................... 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 474

Education and unemployment.......................................................................... 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 475

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS............................................................................... 476

UNDP Education Index, 2007/08 ........................................................ 476

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Education.jpgTHE EDUCATION PICTURE............................................................................................ 375

Education at a glance............................................................................. 375

FINANCE................................................................................................................................. 376

Education spending.................................................................................................... 376

Consolidated education spending, 2008/09 and 2009/10............... 376

Spending per pupil in South Africa, 2008/09...................................... 377

Increase/decrease in spending per pupil, 2000/01–2008/09........... 377

Higher education spending................................................................................. 377

State spending on higher education, 1999 and 2009........................ 377

State budget allocation according to institution and
 spending per university student, 2007............................................. 378

International comparisons.................................................................................. 379

Public expenditure on education as a proportion of total
 government expenditure, and of GDP, selected
 countries, 2007..................................................................................... 379

QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION.............................................. 380

National Qualifications Framework (NQF).............................................................. 380

Levels of education in South Africa..................................................... 380

Level of education........................................................................................................... 381

National statistics........................................................................................................ 381

Adults without education by race...................................................................... 381

Persons aged 20 years and older, with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 381

Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,
 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 381

Adults who have completed grade 8 by race.................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (numbers)................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 8
 by race, 1997 and 2007, (proportions)............................................ 382

Adults who have completed grade 12 by race................................................ 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers).................................................. 382

Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12
 by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions)............................................. 383

Adults who have completed higher education by race.................................. 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (numbers)............................... 383

Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed higher
 education by race, 1997 and 2007 (proportions).......................... 383

Provincial and local statistics.................................................................................... 384

Persons aged 20 and older, by municipality or district and
 province by race, by highest level of education (proportions).... 384

Literacy.............................................................................................................................. 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write....................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (numbers).................................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, by race,
 2007 (proportions)........................................................................... 390

Persons aged 15 and older who can read and write, 2002–2007
  (proportions) ....................................................................................... 390

International comparisons.................................................................................. 391

Human development index and adult literacy, selected
 countries, 2006..................................................................................... 391

Youth literacy rate, selected countries, 2005–2007.......................... 392

EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE..................................................................................... 393

Proportion of population aged between 7 and 15
 attending an educational institution, 2007..................................... 393

Population attending educational institutions, by type
 of institution, 2007.............................................................................. 393

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and province, 2007..................................................... 394

Population attending an educational institution, by
 province, 2007 (proportions)............................................................. 395

Population attending an educational institution, by type
 of institution and race, 2007............................................................. 396

Provincial distribution of learners by poverty quintile, 2008........... 396

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLING............................................................... 397

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 397

Attendance at early childhood development centres, children aged 5-6.. 397

Attendance at early childhood education sites by province,
 and race, 2000..................................................................................... 397

School enrolment levels....................................................................................... 397

School enrolment, 2007.......................................................................... 397

Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent
 schools, 1999 and 2008 .................................................................... 398

Pupils at independent and public schools by province,
 2000 to 2008........................................................................................ 399

Resources........................................................................................................................... 401

Public schools.............................................................................................................. 401

Number of public schools................................................................................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999, 2003, and 2008........................... 401

Public schools by province, 1999 and 2008....................................... 402

Pupils and teachers 402

Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2008................. 402

Numbers of pupils and teachers at public schools,
 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008...................................... 403

Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000......................... 403

School Governing Bodies (SGBs)...................................................................... 404

Teacher qualifications......................................................................................... 405

The qualification profile of teachers in public schools, 2005.......... 405

Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs)............................ 405

Number of teachers employed by school governing bodies,
 1997, 2004, 2007, and 2008............................................................. 405

Teacher vacancies................................................................................................ 406

Vacancies by province, 2006–2008..................................................... 406

Temporary teachers............................................................................................. 407

Temporary teachers employed, by province, by years of service,
 July 2008............................................................................................... 407

Facilities and amenities....................................................................................... 407

Public schools and toilets, 2006............................................................ 407

Public schools and source of water supply, 2006.............................. 409

Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2006.................................... 410

Public schools and source of electricity supply, 2006....................... 411

Public schools and computer facilities, 2006...................................... 412

Public schools and communication systems, 2006........................... 413

Public schools and library facilities, 2006........................................... 414

Safety in schools................................................................................................... 415

Public schools and safety, 2006............................................................ 415

High student safety in school, grade 4, 2006...................................... 416

No-fee schools....................................................................................................... 417

Number and proportion of no-fee schools, and of pupils
 attending no-fee schools, 2008......................................................... 417

Independent schools.................................................................................................. 417

Independent schools by province, 1999, 2003, 2008....................... 417

Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province, 2008...... 418

School examinations and output.................................................................................. 419

Public examinations................................................................................................... 419

Definitions.............................................................................................................. 419

National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric.......... 419

Overall results........................................................................................................ 420

Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007:
 old curriculum...................................................................................... 420

Senior certificate examination results: 2008 — new
 curriculum............................................................................................. 421

Results by province.............................................................................................. 422

Senior certificate examination results by province, 1994, 1998,
 2003,2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007: old curriculum...................... 422

Matric pass rate by race and province, 2007..................................... 424

Subject results....................................................................................................... 426

Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,
 1999–2007: old curriculum............................................................... 426

Subject results: new curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2008........... 428

Senior certificate results: 2008 — technical subjects........................ 438

Language senior certificate examination results: 2008.................... 438

Municipal and provincial results........................................................................ 439

Matric results by municipality and province, 2008........................... 439

Throughput 2006–2008...................................................................................... 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (numbers)................................................. 447

The grade 10 class of 2006 (proportions)............................................ 447

The grade 10 class of 2006.................................................................... 447

Independent examinations board........................................................................... 448

Examination results............................................................................................. 448

Independent Examinations Board senior certificate
 examination results, 1994–2008...................................................... 448

International schooling comparisons......................................................................... 449

Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006................................................... 449

The school system, 2008........................................................................ 450

School enrolment rates, selected countries, 2007.............................. 451

OTHER EDUCATION.......................................................................................................... 452

Further education and training (FET)....................................................................... 452

Further education and training colleges............................................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 2,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges, NQF level 3,
 enrolment by subject, 2008 (numbers)............................................ 452

Further education and training colleges by province, 2009............. 453

Nursing colleges, 2006.................................................................................................... 453

Nursing colleges, 2006............................................................................. 453

PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION...................................................................................... 454

Enrolment.......................................................................................................................... 454

Tertiary enrolment................................................................................................ 454

University and university of technology enrolment, 1985–2007... 454

Tertiary enrolment by race................................................................................. 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (actual numbers), 1995–2007....................... 455

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race (proportions), 1995–2007............................... 456

Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of
 technology by race, 1995 and 2007 (proportions)........................ 456

University head-count, by race, 1999-2007 (numbers).................... 457

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (numbers)............ 457

University head-count, by race, 1999–2007 (proportions).............. 458

University head-count, by race, 1999 and 2007 (proportions)....... 458

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 459

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (numbers)................................................................. 459

University of technology head-count, by race, 1999–2007
 (proportions)......................................................................................... 460

Student enrolment at universities of technology by race,
 1999 and 2007 (proportions)............................................................ 460

Output................................................................................................................................. 461

Tertiary awards, 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................... 461

Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities
 and universities of technology by field of study,
 1996, 2006, and 2007........................................................................ 461

University and university of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (numbers): bachelor degrees and higher ............... 462

Universities and universities of technology awards by race and
 subject, 2007 (proportions): bachelor degrees and higher........... 463

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 464

Degrees and higher awarded by institution and race, 2007
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 466

Output of universities and universities of technology 2007............. 468

Throughput....................................................................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, 2002........................................................................... 469

Tertiary throughput rate, first-year-class of 2002.............................. 469

Input.................................................................................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project................................................................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, academic literacy..................... 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, quantitative literacy................ 470

National Benchmark Tests Project, mathematics............................. 470

World-wide university rankings, 2008....................................................................... 471

The world’s top universities, 2008........................................................ 471

Top 100 universities in Africa, 2009.................................................... 472

PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION................................................................................... 473

Private higher education institutions................................................................. 473

Private Higher Education, 2009, officially registered private
 higher education institutions (includes provisionally
 registered institutions) ........................................................................ 473

WORK AND EDUCATION................................................................................................. 474

Education and employment.......................................................................................... 474

Education and employment............................................................................... 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 474

Employment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 474

Education and unemployment.......................................................................... 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (numbers)............................................................................................. 475

Unemployment by highest level of education, 2008 and 2009
  (proportions)........................................................................................ 475

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS............................................................................... 476

UNDP Education Index, 2007/08 ........................................................ 476

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