Crime & Security

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Crime & Security

Below follows the detailed contents of this chapter. The page numbers refer to the hard copy report.

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Crime & Security.jpgTHE SECURITY PICTURE................................................................................................ 631

South African security at a glance........................................................ 631

STATISTICS AND TRENDS............................................................................................... 632

National crime trends..................................................................................................... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (actual numbers).... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (ratios)...................... 633

Fifteen-year and one-year crime trends.................................................................... 634

Contact crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000
 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................. 634

Contact crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 634

Property-related crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 636

Property-related crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 636

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection:
 actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 637

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 637

Other serious crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 638

Other serious crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 638

Contact-related and total serious crime: actual reported cases and
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 639

Contact-related and serious crime rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 639

Aggravated robbery....................................................................................................... 640

Breakdown of aggravated robbery, 1994/95–2008/09................... 640

Change in aggravated robbery cases, initial recorded
 period – 2008/09................................................................................. 640

Crime on farms................................................................................................................ 641

Reported cases of stock theft in South Africa, 1994/95–2008/09. 641

Stock theft in South Africa per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 641

Farm attacks and murders, 1991–2006/07........................................ 642

Crimes against children under the age of 18............................................................ 643

Reported crimes committed against children under
 the age of 18, 2002/03–2008/09...................................................... 643

Change in reported crimes against children under the age of
 18, 2002/03–2008/09......................................................................... 643

Provincial crime.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder, 1994/95–2008/09.................................................................... 644

Change in murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09......................................... 644

Attempted murder.......................................................................................... 645

Attempted murder, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 645

Change in attempted murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 645

All sexual crimes............................................................................................. 646

All sexual crimes, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 646

All sexual crimes rate, 1994/95–2008/09........................................... 646

Robbery with aggravating circumstances.................................................. 647

Robbery with aggravating circumstances, 1994/95–2008/09........ 647

Change in aggravated robbery rate, 1994/95–2008/09................... 647

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm (GBH)...................... 648

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 648

Change in assault (GBH) rate, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 648

Residential burglary....................................................................................... 649

Burglary at residential premises, 1994/95–2008/09......................... 649

Change in residential burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 649

Business burglary........................................................................................... 650

Burglary at business premises, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 650

Change in business burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 650

Stock theft....................................................................................................... 651

Stock theft, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................................. 651

Change in stock theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09................................... 651

Theft of motor vehicles................................................................................. 652

Theft of motor vehicles, 1994/95–2008/09....................................... 652

Change in motor vehicle theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 652

Commercial crimes........................................................................................ 653

Commercial crimes, 1994/95–2008/09............................................... 653

Change in commercial crime rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 653

Drug-related crime.......................................................................................... 654

Drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 654

Change in rate of drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................. 654

Municipal crime............................................................................................................... 655

Selected crimes and social indicators by municipality, 2007/08.... 655

Causes of death................................................................................................................. 657

Overall manner of non-natural deaths by cause of death, 2007.... 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (actual numbers)........ 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (proportions)............... 658

Top ten external causes of death, 2007.............................................. 658

Manner of violent deaths for the four main cities in South Africa,
 2007....................................................................................................... 658

Violent and firearm violence deaths: rates per 100 000 people,
 2007....................................................................................................... 659

Crime reporting............................................................................................................... 659

Proportion of respondents who reported their experience
 of crime to the police, 1998, 2003 and 2007................................. 659

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by race, 2007........................................................................................ 660

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by province, 2007................................................................................ 660

International crime trends............................................................................................ 661

International murder numbers and rates, 2006................................. 661

Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for various countries,
 2001 and 2008..................................................................................... 662

Crime trends and anti-crime expenditure................................................................. 663

Crime numbers, rates, and expenditure on protection
 services, 1994/95–2007/08............................................................... 663

Crime and public spending, 1998/99–2007/08.................................. 663

POLICE.................................................................................................................................... 664

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 664

The South African Police Service (SAPS).................................................. 664

Number of personnel in the SAPS by sex and race, March 2008... 664

SAPS personnel by race, 2008............................................................... 664

Number of SAPS personnel by rank and race, March 2008............ 665

SAPS personnel and expenditure on personnel by
 programme, March 2008................................................................... 666

SAPS personnel by programme, 2008................................................. 666

Ratio of the population to police officers per province,
 March 2009.......................................................................................... 666

Affirmative action in the SAPS, March 2008 actual employment
 and 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)..................... 667

SAPS personnel by sex, March 2008 actual employment and
 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)............................. 667

Population to police ratios, selected countries.................................... 668

Police reservists............................................................................................... 668

Number of police reservists, 2004/05–2007/08................................. 668

Personnel shortages........................................................................................ 669

Employment and vacancies by programme, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Employment and vacancies by skills level, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Fatalities and escapes..................................................................................................... 670

Number of police officers murdered, 1983/84–2007/08................. 670

Number of escapes from police custody, 2000/01–2007/08.......... 671

Deaths in police custody and as a result of police action....................................... 672

Deaths in police custody, 2003/04–2007/08...................................... 672

Deaths of suspects as a result of police action, 2001/02–
 2007/08................................................................................................. 672

Crimes, corruption, and (mis)conduct in the SAPS................................................. 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms and case dockets, 2001/02–2008/09... 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms, 2001/02–2008/09................................... 673

Lost/stolen case dockets, 2003/04–2008/09...................................... 674

Convictions of SAPS members by crime category, 2007/08........... 674

PROSECUTIONS AND CONVICTIONS......................................................................... 675

Progress on discussions about conviction rates within the
 Criminal Justice System (CJS)................................................................. 675

Cases reported, prosecutions, and convictions as a proportion
 of all cases handled, 2003/04–2007/08.......................................... 676

Crimes and convictions, 2007/08......................................................... 677

THE BENCH AND THE BAR............................................................................................ 677

The Bench.......................................................................................................................... 677

Judges of the superior courts by race, 2005 and 2007...................... 677

Appointment of judges by race, 1994–2005...................................... 678

Magistrates by race, 2007...................................................................... 679

Judges and magistrates by sex, 2007 (proportions)........................... 679

Breakdown of judges and magistrates by sex, 2007........................ 679

Judges and magistrates by race, 2007 (proportions)......................... 680

The Bar.............................................................................................................................. 680

Members of the Bar by race and sex, April 2008.............................. 680

Members of the Bar by race, April 2008............................................. 681

PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICES............................................................. 681

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 681

Correctional Services personnel by race, 2007/08............................. 681

Prisons................................................................................................................................ 682

General statistics............................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009 (proportions).... 682

Prison population by crime category, January 2009......................... 682

Prison population by age, January 2009............................................. 683

Daily average prison population by sex, 1995/96–January 2009.. 684

Daily average prison population, 1995/96–January 2009.............. 684

Prisoners unable to pay bail......................................................................... 685

Prisoners unable to pay bail amount as at 31 March 2008
 by province........................................................................................... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees................................................................................. 685

Sentenced prisoners and awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2008....... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees longer than three months in custody,
 1996–2005........................................................................................... 686

Children and juveniles................................................................................... 686

Awaiting-trial detainees under the age of 18, 1995–
 January 2009....................................................................................... 686

Prisoners under the age of 18 by crime category, January 2009.... 687

Prison overcrowding....................................................................................... 687

Bail conditions.......................................................................................... 687

Long sentences......................................................................................... 687

Prison overcrowding, March 1996–March 2009............................... 688

Duration of sentences, March 1995 and January 2009
 (numbers and proportions)................................................................ 688

Duration of sentences, 1995 and 2009................................................ 689

Duration of sentences: change in proportions, 1995–2009............. 689

Deaths and medical releases of prisoners.................................................. 690

Natural deaths of prisoners and medical releases, 1996–2007....... 690

Prisoner escapes.............................................................................................. 691

Number of prisoner escapes, 1977/78–2007/08................................ 691

International prison trends........................................................................................... 692

International prison statistics, December 2008.................................. 692

DEFENCE................................................................................................................................ 693

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 693

Overall statistics.............................................................................................. 693

Department of Defence personnel by race and sex, March 2008.. 693

Employment and vacancies by programme as at March 2008..... 694

Department of Defence command structures by race and
 rank, April 2007................................................................................... 694

Department of Defence command structures by sex and rank,
 April 2007............................................................................................. 695

Affirmative action in the South African National Defence Force........ 696

Department of Defence employment equity targets
 measured against March 2008 employment................................. 696

Deployment of defence personnel outside South Africa,
 2000–08................................................................................................ 696

International comparisons............................................................................................ 697

Military expenditure and armed forces personnel, 2007.................. 697

PRIVATE SECURITY.......................................................................................................... 698

Change in the number of security businesses, security officers,
 and sworn SAPS officials, 1997–2007............................................ 698

Number of active security officers and sworn police officials,
 1997–2007........................................................................................... 698

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Crime & Security.jpgTHE SECURITY PICTURE................................................................................................ 631

South African security at a glance........................................................ 631

STATISTICS AND TRENDS............................................................................................... 632

National crime trends..................................................................................................... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (actual numbers).... 632

National crime figures, 1994/95 and 2008/09 (ratios)...................... 633

Fifteen-year and one-year crime trends.................................................................... 634

Contact crime: actual reported cases and rates per 100 000
 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................. 634

Contact crime rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 634

Property-related crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 636

Property-related crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 636

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection:
 actual reported cases and rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 637

Crimes heavily dependent on police action for detection
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 637

Other serious crime: actual reported cases and rates
 per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 638

Other serious crime rates per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 638

Contact-related and total serious crime: actual reported cases and
 rates per 100 000 of the population, 1994/95–2008/09.............. 639

Contact-related and serious crime rates per 100 000 of
 the population, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 639

Aggravated robbery....................................................................................................... 640

Breakdown of aggravated robbery, 1994/95–2008/09................... 640

Change in aggravated robbery cases, initial recorded
 period – 2008/09................................................................................. 640

Crime on farms................................................................................................................ 641

Reported cases of stock theft in South Africa, 1994/95–2008/09. 641

Stock theft in South Africa per 100 000 of the population,
 1994/95–2008/09............................................................................... 641

Farm attacks and murders, 1991–2006/07........................................ 642

Crimes against children under the age of 18............................................................ 643

Reported crimes committed against children under
 the age of 18, 2002/03–2008/09...................................................... 643

Change in reported crimes against children under the age of
 18, 2002/03–2008/09......................................................................... 643

Provincial crime.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder.............................................................................................................. 644

Murder, 1994/95–2008/09.................................................................... 644

Change in murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09......................................... 644

Attempted murder.......................................................................................... 645

Attempted murder, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 645

Change in attempted murder rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 645

All sexual crimes............................................................................................. 646

All sexual crimes, 1994/95–2008/09................................................... 646

All sexual crimes rate, 1994/95–2008/09........................................... 646

Robbery with aggravating circumstances.................................................. 647

Robbery with aggravating circumstances, 1994/95–2008/09........ 647

Change in aggravated robbery rate, 1994/95–2008/09................... 647

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm (GBH)...................... 648

Assault with intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, 1994/95–
 2008/09................................................................................................. 648

Change in assault (GBH) rate, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 648

Residential burglary....................................................................................... 649

Burglary at residential premises, 1994/95–2008/09......................... 649

Change in residential burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 649

Business burglary........................................................................................... 650

Burglary at business premises, 1994/95–2008/09............................. 650

Change in business burglary rate, 1994/95–2008/09....................... 650

Stock theft....................................................................................................... 651

Stock theft, 1994/95–2008/09.............................................................. 651

Change in stock theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09................................... 651

Theft of motor vehicles................................................................................. 652

Theft of motor vehicles, 1994/95–2008/09....................................... 652

Change in motor vehicle theft rate, 1994/95–2008/09.................... 652

Commercial crimes........................................................................................ 653

Commercial crimes, 1994/95–2008/09............................................... 653

Change in commercial crime rate, 1994/95–2008/09...................... 653

Drug-related crime.......................................................................................... 654

Drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................................................ 654

Change in rate of drug-related crime, 1994/95–2008/09................. 654

Municipal crime............................................................................................................... 655

Selected crimes and social indicators by municipality, 2007/08.... 655

Causes of death................................................................................................................. 657

Overall manner of non-natural deaths by cause of death, 2007.... 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (actual numbers)........ 657

Manner of non-natural death by sex, 2007 (proportions)............... 658

Top ten external causes of death, 2007.............................................. 658

Manner of violent deaths for the four main cities in South Africa,
 2007....................................................................................................... 658

Violent and firearm violence deaths: rates per 100 000 people,
 2007....................................................................................................... 659

Crime reporting............................................................................................................... 659

Proportion of respondents who reported their experience
 of crime to the police, 1998, 2003 and 2007................................. 659

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by race, 2007........................................................................................ 660

Perceptions of changes in levels of crime over four years
 by province, 2007................................................................................ 660

International crime trends............................................................................................ 661

International murder numbers and rates, 2006................................. 661

Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) for various countries,
 2001 and 2008..................................................................................... 662

Crime trends and anti-crime expenditure................................................................. 663

Crime numbers, rates, and expenditure on protection
 services, 1994/95–2007/08............................................................... 663

Crime and public spending, 1998/99–2007/08.................................. 663

POLICE.................................................................................................................................... 664

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 664

The South African Police Service (SAPS).................................................. 664

Number of personnel in the SAPS by sex and race, March 2008... 664

SAPS personnel by race, 2008............................................................... 664

Number of SAPS personnel by rank and race, March 2008............ 665

SAPS personnel and expenditure on personnel by
 programme, March 2008................................................................... 666

SAPS personnel by programme, 2008................................................. 666

Ratio of the population to police officers per province,
 March 2009.......................................................................................... 666

Affirmative action in the SAPS, March 2008 actual employment
 and 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)..................... 667

SAPS personnel by sex, March 2008 actual employment and
 2010 employment equity targets (proportions)............................. 667

Population to police ratios, selected countries.................................... 668

Police reservists............................................................................................... 668

Number of police reservists, 2004/05–2007/08................................. 668

Personnel shortages........................................................................................ 669

Employment and vacancies by programme, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Employment and vacancies by skills level, April 2007
 to March 2008..................................................................................... 669

Fatalities and escapes..................................................................................................... 670

Number of police officers murdered, 1983/84–2007/08................. 670

Number of escapes from police custody, 2000/01–2007/08.......... 671

Deaths in police custody and as a result of police action....................................... 672

Deaths in police custody, 2003/04–2007/08...................................... 672

Deaths of suspects as a result of police action, 2001/02–
 2007/08................................................................................................. 672

Crimes, corruption, and (mis)conduct in the SAPS................................................. 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms and case dockets, 2001/02–2008/09... 673

Lost/stolen SAPS firearms, 2001/02–2008/09................................... 673

Lost/stolen case dockets, 2003/04–2008/09...................................... 674

Convictions of SAPS members by crime category, 2007/08........... 674

PROSECUTIONS AND CONVICTIONS......................................................................... 675

Progress on discussions about conviction rates within the
 Criminal Justice System (CJS)................................................................. 675

Cases reported, prosecutions, and convictions as a proportion
 of all cases handled, 2003/04–2007/08.......................................... 676

Crimes and convictions, 2007/08......................................................... 677

THE BENCH AND THE BAR............................................................................................ 677

The Bench.......................................................................................................................... 677

Judges of the superior courts by race, 2005 and 2007...................... 677

Appointment of judges by race, 1994–2005...................................... 678

Magistrates by race, 2007...................................................................... 679

Judges and magistrates by sex, 2007 (proportions)........................... 679

Breakdown of judges and magistrates by sex, 2007........................ 679

Judges and magistrates by race, 2007 (proportions)......................... 680

The Bar.............................................................................................................................. 680

Members of the Bar by race and sex, April 2008.............................. 680

Members of the Bar by race, April 2008............................................. 681

PRISONS AND CORRECTIONAL SERVICES............................................................. 681

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 681

Correctional Services personnel by race, 2007/08............................. 681

Prisons................................................................................................................................ 682

General statistics............................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009
 (actual numbers).................................................................................. 682

Prison population by sex and race, January 2009 (proportions).... 682

Prison population by crime category, January 2009......................... 682

Prison population by age, January 2009............................................. 683

Daily average prison population by sex, 1995/96–January 2009.. 684

Daily average prison population, 1995/96–January 2009.............. 684

Prisoners unable to pay bail......................................................................... 685

Prisoners unable to pay bail amount as at 31 March 2008
 by province........................................................................................... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees................................................................................. 685

Sentenced prisoners and awaiting-trial detainees, 1995–2008....... 685

Awaiting-trial detainees longer than three months in custody,
 1996–2005........................................................................................... 686

Children and juveniles................................................................................... 686

Awaiting-trial detainees under the age of 18, 1995–
 January 2009....................................................................................... 686

Prisoners under the age of 18 by crime category, January 2009.... 687

Prison overcrowding....................................................................................... 687

Bail conditions.......................................................................................... 687

Long sentences......................................................................................... 687

Prison overcrowding, March 1996–March 2009............................... 688

Duration of sentences, March 1995 and January 2009
 (numbers and proportions)................................................................ 688

Duration of sentences, 1995 and 2009................................................ 689

Duration of sentences: change in proportions, 1995–2009............. 689

Deaths and medical releases of prisoners.................................................. 690

Natural deaths of prisoners and medical releases, 1996–2007....... 690

Prisoner escapes.............................................................................................. 691

Number of prisoner escapes, 1977/78–2007/08................................ 691

International prison trends........................................................................................... 692

International prison statistics, December 2008.................................. 692

DEFENCE................................................................................................................................ 693

Personnel........................................................................................................................... 693

Overall statistics.............................................................................................. 693

Department of Defence personnel by race and sex, March 2008.. 693

Employment and vacancies by programme as at March 2008..... 694

Department of Defence command structures by race and
 rank, April 2007................................................................................... 694

Department of Defence command structures by sex and rank,
 April 2007............................................................................................. 695

Affirmative action in the South African National Defence Force........ 696

Department of Defence employment equity targets
 measured against March 2008 employment................................. 696

Deployment of defence personnel outside South Africa,
 2000–08................................................................................................ 696

International comparisons............................................................................................ 697

Military expenditure and armed forces personnel, 2007.................. 697

PRIVATE SECURITY.......................................................................................................... 698

Change in the number of security businesses, security officers,
 and sworn SAPS officials, 1997–2007............................................ 698

Number of active security officers and sworn police officials,
 1997–2007........................................................................................... 698

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