The Education Chapter

The Education chapter comprises 100 pages of detail on education in South Africa. The chapter provides an in-depth look at the education profile of the population and offers numerous international comparisons. The detailed sub-sections provide a comprehensive picture of the state of resources in public and private schools, and also provides comprehensive data on examinations and outputs. The chapter closes with a detailed section on higher education, including historical trends going back to 1991.
Click here to sign up
Join the conversation
You are here: Home Reports & Publications South Africa Survey South Africa Survey Online 2011/2012 The Education Chapter

The Education Chapter

The Education chapter comprises 100 pages of detail on education in South Africa. The chapter provides an in-depth look at the education profile of the population and offers numerous international comparisons. The detailed sub-sections provide a comprehensive picture of the state of resources in public and private schools, and also provides comprehensive data on examinations and outputs. The chapter closes with a detailed section on higher education, including historical trends going back to 1991.

2012-Survey----Education-(WEB)-1.jpg

 

Subscribers:

Adobe PDF Download Adobe PDF

Excel Spreadsheet Download Excel Spreadsheet

Non-subscribers:

Magento Purchase Chapter

Register Subscribe

Table of contents:

FINANCE 414
Overall state spending 414
Education and other spending 1994/95–2013/14 414
Basic and provincial education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Higher and further education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
All education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Public education spending as a proportion of total  
 government spending, 1996/97–2012/13 415
Public total education spending and public school spending  
 as a proportion of GDP, 1995/96–2010/11 416
State spending on school education 417
Per capita expenditure for whites and Africans on  
 school education, 1953-1993 417
Spending per pupil by province, 2000/01–2010/11 418
Real spending per pupil in ordinary public schools  
 by province, 2000–2007 418
State spending on universities 418
State spending on universities, 2000 and 2011 418
State budget allocation according to institution and spending  
 per university and student, 2010 419
International comparisons 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected  
 countries, 2010 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, emerging  
 markets, 2010 421
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected African  
 countries, 2010 422
Structure of responsibility 422
QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION 423
National Qualifications Framework (NQF) 423
Levels of education in South Africa 423
Level of education 424
National statistics 424
No schooling 424
Adults without education by race 424
Persons aged 20 and older, with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 424
Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 424
School education 425
Adults who have completed grade 9 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 425
Adults who have completed grade 12 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Post-school education 426
Adults who have completed post-school education  
 by race 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Literacy and numeracy 427
Children 427
Grade 3 literacy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Grade 3 numeracy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Persons aged 15 and older 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can write their own name,  
 by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can read, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who are numerate, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 20 and older 429
Literacy rates of persons aged 20 and above by race  
 and province, 2011 429
International comparisons 430
Adult literacy, selected countries, 2010 430
Youth literacy rate by sex, selected countries, 2010 431
Local statistics 432
Highest education levels of over-21 year olds by  
 municipality, 2011 432
EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE 436
Breakdown by age 436
Attendance at educational institutions by race and age,  
 2011 436
Population aged between 4 and 6 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–07 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–09 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–08 436
Population aged between 16 and 18 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–2007 436
People aged between 5 and 24 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–2008 436
Breakdown by institution 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution, 2009–11 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution and race, 2011 437
Breakdown by fee payment 438
People attending an educational institution who pay  
 annual tuition fees, 2002–11 438
Non-attendance 439
Reasons why individuals aged 7 to 24 are not attending an  
 educational institution by province, 2011 439
SCHOOLING 440
Enrolment 440
Early childhood development centres 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by race, 2011 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by province, 2011 440
Grade R 441
Enrolment by sex in grade R at sites attached to independent  
 and public schools, 1999-2011 441
Primary and secondary enrolment 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2007 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 7 and 13, 1997–2005 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at secondary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2009 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 14 and 18, 1997–2005 441
All schools and enrolment 442
Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent  
 schools, 2000 and 2011 442
Pupils at independent and public schools by province,  
 2000–2011 443
All schools 446
All schools and pupils 447
Schools 447
Pupils 447
Public schools 448
Number of schools 448
Public schools by province, 2000 and 2011 448
Number of Dinaledi schools by province, 2002-08 448
Number of former Model C schools in South Africa, 2009 448
Pupils and teachers 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2011 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools, 2004 and 2011 449
Pupils 449
Pupils in ordinary schools, by province and race, 2010 449
No-fee schools and pupils attending no-fee schools, 2010 450
Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000 450
Pupils in receipt of social grants by province,  
 2007 and 2010 450
Pupils and languages 451
Pupils in ordinary schools, by home language and  
 province, 2010 451
Pupils in ordinary public schools, by preferred language of  
 learning and teaching and province, 2010 452
Pupils who learn in their home language, 2010 453
Single-medium ordinary public schools by province, 2010 454
Parallel-medium ordinary pubilc schools by province and  
 language, 2010 455
Single and parallel-medium schools, 2010 456
Teachers 456
Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs) 456
Teachers employed by school governing bodies,  
 1997-2012 456
Teacher qualifications 457
Teachers that are qualified by race, 1990–2011 457
Teachers that are qualified, 1990–2011 457
Qualified mathematics and physical science teachers  
 by province, 2008 457
Teacher intake 457
First-time registrations in teaching at tertiary institutions,  
 2005–08 457
New graduates entering teaching by province, 2011 457
Teacher vacancies 458
Vacancies by province, 2011 458
Teacher appointments 458
Teaching appointments, 2011 458
Temporary teachers 458
Temporary teachers by province at January 2010 458
Facilities and amenities 459
Public schools and toilets, 2011 459
Public schools and water supply, 2011 460
Public schools and electricity supply, 2011 461
Public schools and communications systems, 2011 462
Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and computer facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and library facilities, 2011 464
Resources in schools 464
Limpopo textbook crisis 464
Safety in schools 465
Public schools and safety, 2011 465
Discipline in schools 466
Expulsions by province, 2008 and 2009 466
Pregnancy in schools 466
Pupils who got pregnant in ordinary schools,  
 by province and grade, 2009 466
Independent schools 467
Independent schools by province, 2000–2011 467
Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province,  
 2011 467
Pupils at independent schools by race and province,  
 2003–08 467
Examinations and output 468
Public examinations 468
National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric 468
Candidates 469
Full-time and part-time candidates by province, 2009–11 469
Full-time and part-time candidates, 2009–11 469
Overall results 470
Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007  
 (old curriculum) 470
National senior certificate examination results, 2008–2011  
 (new curriculum) 470
Results by province 470
Senior certificate examination results by province,  
 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,  
 and 2007 (old curriculum) 470
Results by race and province 471
Pass rate by race and province, 2011 (new curriculum) 471
African results, 1955–2011 472
African results, 1955–2011 472
Africans passing matric, 1955–2011 473
Subject results 473
Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,  
 1999–2007 (old curriculum) 473
New curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2011 473
Technical subjects, 2011 474
Languages, 2011 474
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (actual numbers) 475
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (proportions) 476
Accounting, 2011 477
Mathematics, 2011 477
Mathematics literacy, 2011 477
Physical sciences, 2011 478
Life sciences, 2011 478
English home language, 2011 478
English first additional language, 2011 479
Mathematics results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 479
Physical science results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 480
Matric results by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school,  
 2009 (actual numbers) 481
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by type of school) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by race) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 482
Throughput 483
Throughput, 1995-1997 and 2009–2011 483
Independent Examinations Board 484
Examination results 484
Independent Examinations Board senior certificate  
 examination results, 1994–2011 484
International schooling comparisons 484
The quality of schooling 484
Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006 484
The school system, 2008 484
School enrolment rates 485
Selected countries, 2010 485
OTHER EDUCATION 486
Further education and training (FET) 486
Further education and training colleges 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels by province, 2011 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels, 2011 486
NC (V) subject results per programme, 2009 487
National certification rates, selected subjects, 2009 to 2011 488
Further education and training colleges by  
 provinces, 2012 489
FET colleges in South Africa, 2009 489
Vocational training and apprentices 490
Pupils who took trade tests through Indlela,  
 2006/07–2008/09 490
Number of apprentices that entered apprenticeship training  
 through apprenticeship contracts with Sector Education  
 and Training Authorities (Setas), 2006/07–2008/09 490
Nursing 491
Output of nursing colleges, private and public, 2000–11 491
Agricultural colleges 492
Enrolments at agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
Graduates from agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION 493
Universities 493
Enrolment 494
Higher education participation rate 494
Higher education participation rates by race, 2010 494
First-year enrolment 494
Undergraduate students enrolling for their first year  
 of study, 2004–10 494
University enrolment 495
University and university of technology enrolment,  
 1985–2010 495
Head-count enrolmenta at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (actual numbers) 496
Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (proportions) 497
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999 and  
 2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (proportions) 499
University head-count by race, 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 499
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (proportions) 501
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 501
Staff 502
University staff and students 502
Students, staff and ratio of students to staff, 2010 502
Output 503
Publications 503
Publication of articles, books and conference  
 proceedings, 2009 503
Tertiary awards 503
All awards 503
Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities  
 and universities of technology by field of study,  
 1996, 2006 and 2010 503
Degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010a (actual numbers): degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (vertical proportions): degrees 506
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (horizontal proportions): degrees 508
Output of universities and universities of technology,  
 2010 (actual numbers) 510
Proportion of graduates in science, engineering, and  
 technology (SET) in higher education, 1994–2010 511
PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION 512
Officially registered private higher institutions, 2011 512
Private higher education institutions in South Africa, 2011 512
WORK AND EDUCATION 513
Education and employment 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (numbers) 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 513
Education and unemployment 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (actual numbers) 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 514

IRR TV

2012-Survey----Education-(WEB)-1.jpg

 

Subscribers:

Adobe PDF Download Adobe PDF

Excel Spreadsheet Download Excel Spreadsheet

Non-subscribers:

Magento Purchase Chapter

Register Subscribe

Table of contents:

FINANCE 414
Overall state spending 414
Education and other spending 1994/95–2013/14 414
Basic and provincial education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Higher and further education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
All education spending, 2010/11–2014/15 414
Public education spending as a proportion of total  
 government spending, 1996/97–2012/13 415
Public total education spending and public school spending  
 as a proportion of GDP, 1995/96–2010/11 416
State spending on school education 417
Per capita expenditure for whites and Africans on  
 school education, 1953-1993 417
Spending per pupil by province, 2000/01–2010/11 418
Real spending per pupil in ordinary public schools  
 by province, 2000–2007 418
State spending on universities 418
State spending on universities, 2000 and 2011 418
State budget allocation according to institution and spending  
 per university and student, 2010 419
International comparisons 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected  
 countries, 2010 420
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, emerging  
 markets, 2010 421
Public spending on education as a proportion of total  
 government spending, and of GDP, selected African  
 countries, 2010 422
Structure of responsibility 422
QUALIFICATION PROFILE OF THE POPULATION 423
National Qualifications Framework (NQF) 423
Levels of education in South Africa 423
Level of education 424
National statistics 424
No schooling 424
Adults without education by race 424
Persons aged 20 and older, with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 424
Persons aged 20 and older with no schooling by race,  
 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 424
School education 425
Adults who have completed grade 9 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 9  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 425
Adults who have completed grade 12 by race 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 425
Persons aged 20 and older who have completed grade 12  
 by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Post-school education 426
Adults who have completed post-school education  
 by race 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (actual numbers) 426
Persons aged 20 and older, who have completed post-school  
 education by race, 2002 and 2011 (proportions) 426
Literacy and numeracy 427
Children 427
Grade 3 literacy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Grade 3 numeracy by province, 2001, 2007 and 2011 427
Persons aged 15 and older 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can write their own name,  
 by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who can read, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 15 and older who are numerate, by race, 2011 428
Persons aged 20 and older 429
Literacy rates of persons aged 20 and above by race  
 and province, 2011 429
International comparisons 430
Adult literacy, selected countries, 2010 430
Youth literacy rate by sex, selected countries, 2010 431
Local statistics 432
Highest education levels of over-21 year olds by  
 municipality, 2011 432
EDUCATIONAL ATTENDANCE 436
Breakdown by age 436
Attendance at educational institutions by race and age,  
 2011 436
Population aged between 4 and 6 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–07 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–09 436
Population aged between 7 and 15 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–08 436
Population aged between 16 and 18 attending an  
 educational institution by sex, 2002–2007 436
People aged between 5 and 24 attending an  
 educational institution, 2002–2008 436
Breakdown by institution 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution, 2009–11 437
Population attending an educational institution, by type  
 of institution and race, 2011 437
Breakdown by fee payment 438
People attending an educational institution who pay  
 annual tuition fees, 2002–11 438
Non-attendance 439
Reasons why individuals aged 7 to 24 are not attending an  
 educational institution by province, 2011 439
SCHOOLING 440
Enrolment 440
Early childhood development centres 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by race, 2011 440
Population aged between 0 and 4 attending an Early  
 Childhood Development (ECD) centre, by province, 2011 440
Grade R 441
Enrolment by sex in grade R at sites attached to independent  
 and public schools, 1999-2011 441
Primary and secondary enrolment 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at primary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2007 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 7 and 13, 1997–2005 441
Gross enrolment rate (GER) at secondary school level,  
 1985, 1991, 1995, 1997–2009 441
Net enrolment rate (NER) of children aged between  
 14 and 18, 1997–2005 441
All schools and enrolment 442
Enrolment by grade at ordinary public and independent  
 schools, 2000 and 2011 442
Pupils at independent and public schools by province,  
 2000–2011 443
All schools 446
All schools and pupils 447
Schools 447
Pupils 447
Public schools 448
Number of schools 448
Public schools by province, 2000 and 2011 448
Number of Dinaledi schools by province, 2002-08 448
Number of former Model C schools in South Africa, 2009 448
Pupils and teachers 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools by province, 2011 449
Pupils and teachers at public schools, 2004 and 2011 449
Pupils 449
Pupils in ordinary schools, by province and race, 2010 449
No-fee schools and pupils attending no-fee schools, 2010 450
Pupils at farm schools by province, 1996 and 2000 450
Pupils in receipt of social grants by province,  
 2007 and 2010 450
Pupils and languages 451
Pupils in ordinary schools, by home language and  
 province, 2010 451
Pupils in ordinary public schools, by preferred language of  
 learning and teaching and province, 2010 452
Pupils who learn in their home language, 2010 453
Single-medium ordinary public schools by province, 2010 454
Parallel-medium ordinary pubilc schools by province and  
 language, 2010 455
Single and parallel-medium schools, 2010 456
Teachers 456
Teachers employed by School Governing Bodies (SGBs) 456
Teachers employed by school governing bodies,  
 1997-2012 456
Teacher qualifications 457
Teachers that are qualified by race, 1990–2011 457
Teachers that are qualified, 1990–2011 457
Qualified mathematics and physical science teachers  
 by province, 2008 457
Teacher intake 457
First-time registrations in teaching at tertiary institutions,  
 2005–08 457
New graduates entering teaching by province, 2011 457
Teacher vacancies 458
Vacancies by province, 2011 458
Teacher appointments 458
Teaching appointments, 2011 458
Temporary teachers 458
Temporary teachers by province at January 2010 458
Facilities and amenities 459
Public schools and toilets, 2011 459
Public schools and water supply, 2011 460
Public schools and electricity supply, 2011 461
Public schools and communications systems, 2011 462
Public schools and laboratory facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and computer facilities, 2011 463
Public schools and library facilities, 2011 464
Resources in schools 464
Limpopo textbook crisis 464
Safety in schools 465
Public schools and safety, 2011 465
Discipline in schools 466
Expulsions by province, 2008 and 2009 466
Pregnancy in schools 466
Pupils who got pregnant in ordinary schools,  
 by province and grade, 2009 466
Independent schools 467
Independent schools by province, 2000–2011 467
Pupils and teachers at independent schools by province,  
 2011 467
Pupils at independent schools by race and province,  
 2003–08 467
Examinations and output 468
Public examinations 468
National Senior Certificate Grade 12, also known as Matric 468
Candidates 469
Full-time and part-time candidates by province, 2009–11 469
Full-time and part-time candidates, 2009–11 469
Overall results 470
Senior certificate examination results, 1980–2007  
 (old curriculum) 470
National senior certificate examination results, 2008–2011  
 (new curriculum) 470
Results by province 470
Senior certificate examination results by province,  
 1994, 1998, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,  
 and 2007 (old curriculum) 470
Results by race and province 471
Pass rate by race and province, 2011 (new curriculum) 471
African results, 1955–2011 472
African results, 1955–2011 472
Africans passing matric, 1955–2011 473
Subject results 473
Results in selected senior certificate examination subjects,  
 1999–2007 (old curriculum) 473
New curriculum: 15 selected subjects, 2011 473
Technical subjects, 2011 474
Languages, 2011 474
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (actual numbers) 475
Passes by level of mark, selected subjects,  
 2008–11 (proportions) 476
Accounting, 2011 477
Mathematics, 2011 477
Mathematics literacy, 2011 477
Physical sciences, 2011 478
Life sciences, 2011 478
English home language, 2011 478
English first additional language, 2011 479
Mathematics results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 479
Physical science results in Dinaledi and other schools, 2011 480
Matric results by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school, 2009 481
Matric pass rates by race and type of school,  
 2009 (actual numbers) 481
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by type of school) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 (proportions  
 by race) 482
Matric passes by race and type of school, 2009 482
Throughput 483
Throughput, 1995-1997 and 2009–2011 483
Independent Examinations Board 484
Examination results 484
Independent Examinations Board senior certificate  
 examination results, 1994–2011 484
International schooling comparisons 484
The quality of schooling 484
Reading achievement, grade 4, 2006 484
The school system, 2008 484
School enrolment rates 485
Selected countries, 2010 485
OTHER EDUCATION 486
Further education and training (FET) 486
Further education and training colleges 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels by province, 2011 486
Enrolments for NC (V) levels, 2011 486
NC (V) subject results per programme, 2009 487
National certification rates, selected subjects, 2009 to 2011 488
Further education and training colleges by  
 provinces, 2012 489
FET colleges in South Africa, 2009 489
Vocational training and apprentices 490
Pupils who took trade tests through Indlela,  
 2006/07–2008/09 490
Number of apprentices that entered apprenticeship training  
 through apprenticeship contracts with Sector Education  
 and Training Authorities (Setas), 2006/07–2008/09 490
Nursing 491
Output of nursing colleges, private and public, 2000–11 491
Agricultural colleges 492
Enrolments at agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
Graduates from agricultural colleges by race, 2009 492
PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION 493
Universities 493
Enrolment 494
Higher education participation rate 494
Higher education participation rates by race, 2010 494
First-year enrolment 494
Undergraduate students enrolling for their first year  
 of study, 2004–10 494
University enrolment 495
University and university of technology enrolment,  
 1985–2010 495
Head-count enrolmenta at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (actual numbers) 496
Head-count enrolment at universities and universities of  
 technology by race, 1995–2010 (proportions) 497
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999 and  
 2010 (actual numbers) 498
University head-count by race, 1999–2010 (proportions) 499
University head-count by race, 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 499
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (actual numbers) 500
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999–2010 (proportions) 501
University of technology head-count by race,  
 1999 and 2010 (proportions) 501
Staff 502
University staff and students 502
Students, staff and ratio of students to staff, 2010 502
Output 503
Publications 503
Publication of articles, books and conference  
 proceedings, 2009 503
Tertiary awards 503
All awards 503
Degrees, diplomas, and certificates awarded by universities  
 and universities of technology by field of study,  
 1996, 2006 and 2010 503
Degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010a (actual numbers): degrees 504
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (vertical proportions): degrees 506
University and university of technology awards by race and  
 subject, 1991 and 2010 (horizontal proportions): degrees 508
Output of universities and universities of technology,  
 2010 (actual numbers) 510
Proportion of graduates in science, engineering, and  
 technology (SET) in higher education, 1994–2010 511
PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION 512
Officially registered private higher institutions, 2011 512
Private higher education institutions in South Africa, 2011 512
WORK AND EDUCATION 513
Education and employment 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (numbers) 513
Employment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 513
Education and unemployment 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (actual numbers) 514
Unemployment by highest level of education, 2011 and  
 2012 (proportions) 514

Free Society Project